Men With Urinary Tract Infection
What is Urinary Tract Infection?
Your urinary system consists of kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Kidneys produce urine which is then passed down the ureters into the bladder. The bladder stores the urine for a few hours before we empty it through the urethra which is the water pipe. UTI or urinary tract infection occurs when bacteria enters this system, either through the urethra into the bladder or via the blood directly into the kidneys
Cystitis or Bladder Infection
When bacteria enter the bladder through the water pipe they can lead to the infection and inflammation of the bladder called cystitis. These infections are caused by bacteria from the bowel usually by spreading from the skin around the back passage to the urethra and then into the bladder.
In men the causes of bladder infections are:
- Incomplete emptying of the bladder caused by prostatic enlargement, mostly in men over 50
- Urethral stricture which is narrowing of the water pipe
- Neurological conditions leading to weakness of the bladder muscle and thus poor emptying of the bladder can also lead to infections
- Presence of bladder stone which can cause painful voiding along with infection or blood in the urine.
- Urethral catheter can also lead to recurrent UTI
Inflammation and infection of the water pipe may be caused by organisms which are transmitted through sexual contact including Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia.
Inflammation and infection of the prostate can lead to a wide variety of symptoms, including pain, discomfort and lower urinary tract symptoms.
Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)
Upper tract urinary infections often occur from bacteria which have travelled upwards to the kidney from the bladder or organisms spreading through the blood stream into the kidney. Pyelonephritis is a serious condition which can cause severe pain along with high grade temperature, shivering and feeling very unwell. The majority of these patients require admission to be treated with IV antibiotics and further assessment of the cause of infection.
- Frequency of urination
- Urgency to urinate
- Pain, discomfort or burning sensation during urination
- Getting up at night to pass water
- Pain or discomfort in the bladder area (lower part of the abdomen below the naval)
- Urine that looks cloudy or smells foul
- Nausea or vomiting
- Pain in the sides or back
You will be seen by Mr Syed in the clinic who will ask you a detailed history of your symptoms. You will be asked about any associated problems like kidney stones, previous history of any urethral stricture, prostate surgery, urinary retention or blockage to your kidneys.
Your clinical examination includes examination of abdomen, external genitalia and digital rectal examination to feel your prostate.
Various tests include:
- Dipstick for microscopic urine examination
- Plain X-ray, along with an ultrasound scan
- CT scan is arranged in suspected stone cases, blood in the urine or severe infections
- Flexible cystoscopy. This is a telescopic examination of the bladder carried out under local anaesthetic jelly to rule out any obstruction to the water pipe, assess the prostate and examine the bladder.
- Flow rate study. In this test you will be asked to pass urine into a funnel which gives an objective assessment of your flow rate followed by a scan of your bladder to rule out any residual urine left after voiding.
Treatment and Prevention
Mr Syed will see you with the results of these investigations and any further treatment is based on the findings of these tests. If your urine shows definite infection you will be provided with a week's course of antibiotics followed by a repeat urine examination. You are also encouraged to drink plenty of clear fluids.
If the cause of your infection is enlargement of the prostate causing obstruction to the outflow of your urine treatment options include medications or prostate surgery which will be discussed with you in detail.
Comprehensive diagnostic service for a wide range of urological conditions